The types of lumps on the gums can be due to many different etiologies.

The gum It is a part of the masticatory mucosa that covers the area of ​​the alveolar bone and also surrounds the entire neck portion of the teeth, the cervical area.

This acquires its final shape and texture during tooth eruption. However, poorly positioned teeth generate irregularities in the gum which can cause the gum to vary in thickness.

There are two parts of the gingiva: the free gingiva and the attached gingiva.

  • The free gum, has a maximum depth of about 1 or 2 millimeters, this being the area of ​​the gingival sulcus.
  • The attached gingiva, extends in an apical direction towards the junction between the gingiva and the mucosa (the mucoginigval junction) where it continues with the alveolar mucosa.

Clinically, free gingiva cannot be evaluated, but it is possible to distinguish between attached gingiva by means of a clinical procedure, probing. This is a measurement of the gingival sulcus area using a depth probe, the periodontal probe. When there is an inflamed tissue, the gum will present less resistance to probing, so it will have more permeability and the measurement will be higher.


Usually the appearance of various types of lumps in the gum, whether they are hard or not lumps in the gum, is associated with an inflammation in it, gingivitis, which may or may not be caused by dental plaque.

Gingivitis is a gum disease that is usually caused exclusively by plaque, there is an inflammation of the tissues, for which clinically a color change is observed, an increase in the size of the inflamed gum and usually bleeding during the examination.

Gingivitis modified by general systemic factors can lead to different types of lumps on the gums. Here are some of them.

At puberty, there are several hormonal changes, such as an increase in a sex hormone, testosterone, which can promote the growth of bacteria and cause some types of lumps on the gums due to more severe gingivitis. Making a different anatomy exist in the gum and can cause spontaneous bleeding of the gums.

There is a type of gingivitis which is associated with the menstrual cycle. In this, the appearance of an inflamed gum, with some types of localized or generalized gum lumps, is due to high levels of estradiol in the menstrual cycle.

During pregnancy, high levels of progesterone can be used by some bacteria to grow, so you can see pregnancy-related types of gum lumps called pyogenic granulomas or epulis gravidarum. Certain medications can cause the appearance of gingivitis with which different anomalies can be observed, similar to types of lumps in the gums, such as gingival enlargement characterized by an abnormal growth of fibroblasts which end up manufacturing more collagen. These medications are:

  • Hydantoins. These are used to control seizures. These lumps appear on the gums in 50% of patients taking this drug.
  • Cyclosporins. Used in transplants to control organ rejection and to treat certain autoimmune diseases. In 30% of patients there is gingival enlargement.
  • Calcium channel blockers (nifedipine, varapamil and diltiazem). They are used to treat heart failure and in patients who have high blood pressure (high blood pressure) or myocardial (heart muscle) problems. These types of gum lumps in the form of gingival enlargement appear in 15%.

In the dental clinic, Smile Care Plymouth, ​​we have periodontist dentists, specialists in science who study the gums and the supporting tissues of the tooth, which will help you to know what types of lumps in the gums you may have, how to treat them. So we can help you improve oral health and have a natural and pleasant smile.



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