Soft tissue replacement is achieved by suturing. The suture in dentistry it is the last step of the operative times that are carried out in oral surgery. This should be done after any operative wound.
The use of stitches In dentistry they are of great importance since they allow the replacement of the tissues in their original place or in some other desired position, an absolutely precise and atraumatic coaptation of the edges is achieved, an elimination of dead spaces, where liquids could accumulate and blood and be a medium for the culture of microorganisms, and with it the exudate from the alveolar bone can be controlled, the clot in the scar area and the gingival edges can be protected.
The suture allows healing by first intention and favors hemostasis, this also affects postoperative care by the patient and dentist.
There are several suture points and techniques in dentistry: discontinuous suture, continuous suture or other types.
- The discontinuous suture or simple stitches is performed by introducing suture on one edge and then it is introduced on the other edge (with the same thickness), finally the knots are made on one side of the incision. There are several simple points such as the 8 point, the Blair-Donati point, Ebahi point or the mattress point.
- The discontinuous suture is the one where several stitches are made and at the end the knot is tied. This type is indicated in large incisions, in incisions of the alveolar mucosa or skin.
- The other types of suture are little used, such as the three-point suture, the capitoné stitch, among others.
The suture consists of two parts: the first part is the needle and the other, the suture thread. The needle in dentistry is usually curved since with this shape it works properly in the oral cavity. The suture itself, the thread, can be classified as a resorbable or non-resorbable suture. The first has to be removed from the oral cavity between 7 and 10 days, but the second is reabsorbed by itself and it is not necessary to remove it. The main types of absorbable suture are polyglactin (Vicryl®), polyglycolic acid (Dexon®), polygecaprone (Monocryl®), and polydioxanone (PDS®). Non-absorbable suture types in dentistry are silk, polypropylene (Prolene®), and polyamide-nylon (Ethilon®).
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