A cyst is defined as a closed bag with its own membrane that develops abnormally.Most maxillary cysts are called non-tumor since they are usually benign and painless.

The jaw cysts they are circumscribed pathological cavities that are covered by an epithelium. These can contain fluid, pus, blood, or a semi-solid material. These injuries can destroy bone and cause tooth movement.

The growth of maxillary cysts is always slow and generally asymptomatic. These are usually recurrent, that is, once removed they can reappear. As a rule, maxillary cysts have a different origin and clinical behavior.

What can be the causes of the maxillary cyst?

Maxillary cysts are classified into two main groups, according to their origin:

  • Odontogenic cysts. This group has its origin in the tissues originally responsible for the formation of teeth.
  • Non-odontogenic cysts. Its origin is in the cells that form the jaws and their structures.

In most cases, maxillary cysts have a dental origin. They occur as a result of the spread of the infection that affects the tooth itself and also the bone that surrounds it.

Most odontogenic maxillary cysts are usually produced by remains of bacteria in the teeth where they present unmanaged pulp pathologies (deep cavities) or caused by poor endodontic treatment (failed endodontics), in which the root or anatomy of the bone has a difficult anomaly which makes the endodontist not have adequate access to the dental apex area. So that pulp and bacterial remains remain at the apex of the affected tooth and infectious processes can be generated.

What is the treatment of the maxillary cyst?

Before performing any dental treatment, it is essential to make a good diagnosis. This must include a previous clinical and radiographic study, in order to determine the extent of the pathology and classify it according to its characteristics. On some occasions the clinical diagnosis includes complementary tests such as an aspiration puncture (FNA) or a histopathological examination, to determine the nature of the lesion.

The treatment of cystic lesions is determined according to the clinical behavior and the anatomical involvement of the lesion. Treatment of cysts consists of excision cyst (under local anesthesia), with an approximate duration of about 30 minutes.

The surgical procedure may require additional treatment:

  • A root canal or re-endodontic treatment of the affected tooth.
  • An extraction of the affected tooth that is not viable.
  • A retrograde filling of the affected tooth.
  • A bone reconstruction of the affected area.
  • A reconstruction of the gums and soft tissues to obtain good periodontal health while improving aesthetics.

Once the cyst has been removed, it is essential to perform a pathological analysis by a pathologist who is expert in head and neck injuries.

As in most dental treatments, prevention and a proper diagnosis are a very important role in order to avoid future problems. Therefore, it is recommended to carry out a minimum annual check-up with your dentist to carry out a comprehensive review of the oral cavity.



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