In the specialty of oral medicine it is called: benign migratory glossitis what is more commonly known as geographic tongue that comes to be a benign inflammation of the league that presents areas with erythema, despilated areas with well-defined surrounding margins on the dorsal surface, these can appear and disappear within just days. The symptoms of this lingual alteration are usually painless. But the size, shape and location of the lesions are very varied.
The prevalence is very varied according to the countries, approximately the statistical data place:
- 0.6% of Americans
- 4% of Iraqi youth
- 2% of Finnish youth
Regarding gender, women are affected three times more than men. It can occur at any age, although it tends in middle-aged and older people and in families.
The exact cause is not known, although it is known that it occurs more frequently in women and is considered linked to the following systemic pathologies: asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, acne, nutritional or vitamin alterations, stress and / or anxiety they also contribute greatly.
Geographic tongue is more common in people with asthma. Lithium carbonate has been associated with the development of the geographic tongue. There is a fourfold increase in geographic tongue with patients who have juvenile diabetes.
The causes as we have said are very varied, but can include deficiencies of B vitamins, allergies, and hormonal changes. And it is that the geographic tongue occurs more frequently in women, due to the decrease in folic acid, especially during times of great hormonal changes, during ovulation or the gestational period.
The bibliography indicates that there is a relationship between geographic tongue and psoriasis. But nevertheless, 90% of infants diagnosed with geographic tongue do not suffer from psoriasis.
It further establishes a genetic origin and is associated with several different genes.
The geographic tongue is a benign lesion which is characterized by the existence of deep grooves or non-regular cracks, especially located in the lateral and anterior parts of the tongue.
These cracks they usually make their appearance at six months of age (or even in adulthood) and do not cause any discomfort, nor alterations in the sense of taste. The cracks of the geographic tongue can vary: disappear, appear again in other areas of the tongue, increase or mitigate. It should be noted that geographic language is not contagious.
Geographical Language Treatment
Treatment of this type of alteration is generally not necessary and the injury or injuries usually go away on their own, but they can reappear and can also spread or occur in other areas of the tongue.
Although a specific and curative treatment is not known, the dentist usually advises a series of guidelines such as paying attention to the hygiene of the tongue during tooth brushing, and avoiding foods that increase the severity of the problem.
There are steroid ointments, which can be applied topically in patients with bothersome symptoms, although it is not usual. Triancinolone acetonide, 0.1%, could be applied to the affected area overnight. The burning that can be one of the symptoms can be reduced by antihistamines. It always depends on the severity, you could use anesthetic mouthwashes, pain relievers and zinc supplements.
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